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Understanding Aircraft Icing: Clear Ice, Rime Ice, and Mixed Ice

Ice on a wing

Aircraft icing is a crucial topic for pilots, as it can significantly impact flight safety. In this blog post, we’ll take an in-depth look at clear ice, rime ice, and mixed ice, and how each type of icing can affect your aircraft. We’ll also briefly touch on carb and induction icing, which can impact engine performance.

Clear Ice

Description: Clear ice is formed when supercooled water droplets hit the aircraft’s surface and freeze slowly. It is transparent, hard, and challenging to see.

Effects on aircraft: Clear ice can lead to increased drag and reduced lift, potentially causing performance issues and even stalling.

Preventative measures: Pilots should monitor weather conditions and avoid flying into areas with a high likelihood of clear ice formation. Using de-icing and anti-icing systems can also help reduce the risk.

Clear ice on a leading edge

Rime Ice

Description: Rime ice occurs when supercooled water droplets freeze rapidly upon contact with the aircraft, creating a rough, opaque layer of ice.


Effects on aircraft:
The rough surface of rime ice can disrupt airflow, affecting the aircraft’s aerodynamic performance.

Preventative measures: Similar to clear ice, pilots should avoid flying in conditions that promote rime ice formation and utilise de-icing and anti-icing systems.

Rime ice on the nose of an aircraft

Mixed Ice

Description: Mixed ice is a combination of clear and rime ice, with irregular freezing patterns on the aircraft’s surface.


Effects on aircraft:
Mixed ice can cause significant performance issues, combining the negative effects of both clear and rime ice.


Preventative measures: As with clear and rime ice, awareness of weather conditions and using appropriate de-icing and anti-icing systems can help minimize mixed ice formation.

Mixed ice forming on leading edge

Carb Icing and Induction Icing

Carb icing: Occurs when ice forms in the carburetor of an aircraft engine, potentially causing power loss or engine failure.


Induction icing: Happens when ice forms in the engine’s intake system, restricting airflow and reducing engine power.


Preventative measures:
Carb heat can be used to prevent carb icing, while alternate air sources can help minimize induction icing. Regular engine checks and maintenance can also play a significant role in preventing these types of icing.

Understanding the different types of aircraft icing and their effects on flight safety is crucial for pilots. By being aware of weather conditions, using appropriate de-icing and anti-icing systems, and maintaining engines properly, pilots can reduce the risks associated with aircraft icing and fly safely.

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